When the Normans settled in southern Italy and in Sicily, they adjusted to the pre-existing systems of Byzantine gold and copper production in southern Italy and Arab gold and silver production in Sicily.
The first coins to be minted by the Normans were follari, imitating Byzantine coinage, and tari and kharubbe, imitating Arab coinage. These were produced anonymously. After the conquest of Palermo (1072), the workshop produced tari in Arabic in the name of Duke (al-dûqah) Robert Guiscard and Count (al-qûmis) Roger.
- Italie des Normands, Normandie des Plantagenêts, Musée de Normandie, Caen, 1995
- Trésors romans d'Italie du Sud et de Sicile, Toulouse, Musée des Augustins, G. Coppola (dir.)
Salerno, Museo Provinciale